1. Thurman DJ, Beghi E, Begley CE, et al. Standards for epidemiologic studies and surveillance of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2011;52: Suppl 7. 2–26.
2. Kiasalari Z, Khalili M, Roghani M, Heidari H, Azizi Y. Antiepileptic and antioxidant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ferula assa foetida gum on pentylentetrazole-induced kindling in male mice. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2013;4:299–306.
3. Jalili C, Salahshoor M, Pourmotabbed A, et al. The effects of aqueous extract of Boswellia Serrata on hippocampal region CA1 and learning deficit in kindled rats. Res Pharm Sci. 2014;9:351–8.
4. Sendrowski K, Sobaniec W. Hippocampus, hippocampal sclerosis and epilepsy. Pharmacol Rep. 2013;65:555–65.
5. Bhutada P, Mundhada Y, Bansod K, Dixit P, Umathe S, Mundhada D. Anticonvulsant activity of berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid in mice. Epilepsy Behav. 2010;18:207–10.
6. Mehrzadi S, Shojaii A, Pur SA, Motevalian M. Anticonvulsant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of citrullus colocynthis fruit involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2015;21:4. NP31–5.
7. Mehrzadi S, Sadr S, Hosseinzadeh A, et al. Anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract of Punica granatum L. seed. Neurol Res. 2015;37:470–5.
10. Jung B, Shin M. Illustrated encyclopedia of Korean medicinal plants. Seoul: Younglim Press; 1990. p. 250–1.
11. Shi GF, An LJ, Jiang B, Guan S, Bao YM. Alpinia protocatechuic acid protects against oxidative damage in vitro and reduces oxidative stress in vivo. Neurosci Lett. 2006;403:206–10.
12. Israf D, Khaizurin T, Syahida A, Lajis N, Khozirah S. Cardamonin inhibits COX and iNOS expression via inhibition of p65NF-κB nuclear translocation and Iκ-B phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:673–9.
13. Bendjeddou D, Lalaoui K, Satta D. Immunostimulating activity of the hot water-soluble polysaccharide extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum, Alpinia galanga and Citrullus colocynthis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88:155–60.
14. Lee C, Houghton P. Cytotoxicity of plants from Malaysia and Thailand used traditionally to treat cancer. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;100:237–43.
15. Shin D, Kinoshita K, Koyama K, Takahashi K. Antiemetic principles of Alpinia officinarum. J Nat Prod. 2002;69:1315–8.
16. Fatehi F, Fatemi I, Shamsizadeh A, et al. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Pistacia vera on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in rat. Res J Pharmacogn. 2017;4:45–51.
17. Hosseinzadeh H, Parvardeh S. Anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in mice. Phytomedicine. 2004;11:56–64.
18. Kaminski RM, Witkin JM, Shippenberg TS. Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of kappa opioid receptors: Effects on cocaine-and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions and seizure kindling. Neuropharmacology. 2007;52:895–903.
19. Jung CH, Jang SJ, Ahn J, et al. Alpinia officinarum inhibits adipocyte differentiation and high-fat diet–induced obesity in mice through regulation of adipogenesis and lipogenesis. J Med Food. 2012;15:959–67.
20. Honmore VS, Kandhare AD, Kadam PP, et al. Isolates of Alpinia officinarum Hance as COX-2 inhibitors: Evidence from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and molecular docking studies. Int Immunopharmacol. 2016;33:8–17.
21. Corda M, Giorgi O, Longoni B, Orlandi M, Biggio G. Decrease in the Function of the γ-Aminobutyric Acid-Coupled Chloride Channel Produced by the Repeated Administration of Pentylenetetrazol to Rats. J Neurochem. 1990;55:1216–21.
22. Meldrum B. GABA-agonists as anti-epileptic agents. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol. 1981;26:207–17.
24. Bashkatova V, Narkevich V, Vitskova G, Vanin A. The influence of anticonvulsant and antioxidant drugs on nitric oxide level and lipid peroxidation in the rat brain during penthylenetetrazole-induced epileptiform model seizures. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2003;27:487–92.
25. Sah R, Galeffi F, Ahrens R, Jordan G, Schwartz-Bloom RD. Modulation of the GABA(A)-gated chloride channel by reactive oxygen species. J neurochem. 2002;80:383–91.
26. da Tomé AR, Ferreira PM, Freitas RM. Inhibitory action of anti-oxidants (ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol) on seizures and brain damage induced by pilocarpine in rats. Arqu Neuro-psiquiatr. 2010;68:355–61.
27. Fernández-Cancio M, Fernández-Vitos EM, Imperial S, Centelles JJ. Structural requirements of benzodiazepines for the inhibition of pig brain nitric oxide synthase. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2001;96:87–93.
28. Heo MY, Sohn SJ, Au WW. Antigenotoxicity of galangin as a cancer chemopreventive agent candidate. Mutat Res. 2001;488:135–50.
29. Hong J. Hippocampal opioid peptides and seizures. Epilepsy Res Suppl. 1991;7:187–95.
30. Foote F, Gale K. Proconvulsant effect of morphine on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1984;105:179–84.
31. Simmons ML, Chavkin C. Endogenous opioid regulation of hippocampal function. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1996;39:145–96.
32. Lauretti GR, Ahmad I, Pleuvry B. The activity of opioid analgesics in seizure models utilizing N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid, kainic acid, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Neuropharmacology. 1994;33:155–60.
34. Rao R, Medhi B, Saikia U, et al. Experimentally induced various inflammatory models and seizure: understanding the role of cytokine in rat. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18:760–7.
35. Vezzani A, Balosso S, Ravizza T. The role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:797–803.
36. Vieira V, Glassmann D, Marafon P, Pereira P, Gomez R, Coitinho AS. Effect of diclofenac sodium on seizures and inflammatory profile induced by kindling seizure model. Epilepsy Res. 2016;127:107–13.
37. Mirzaei K, Hosseinnezhad A, Aslani S, Emamgholipour S, Karimi M, Keshavarz S. Alpinia Energy expenditure regulation via macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obesity and in vitro anti-macrophage migration inhibitory factor effect of Alpinia officinarum hance extraction. Endocr Pract. 2012;18:39–48.
38. Lee J-H, Jung HS, Giang PM, et al. Blockade of nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway and anti-inflammatory activity of cardamomin, a chalcone analog from Alpinia conchiger. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;316:271–8.
39. Han JY, Ahn SY, Kim CS, et al. Protection of apigenin against kainate-induced excitotoxicity by anti-oxidative effects. Bio PharmBull. 2012;35:1440–6.
40. Zhu W, Su J, Liu J, Jiang C. The involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the anti-epileptic action of curcumin on pentylenetetrazol-kindled rats. Biomed Mater Eng. 2015;26: Suppl 1. S841–50.
41. Sumanont Y, Murakami Y, Tohda M, Vajragupta O, Watanabe H, Matsumoto K. Prevention of kainic acid-induced changes in nitric oxide level and neuronal cell damage in the rat hippocampus by manganese complexes of curcumin and diacetylcurcumin. Life Sci. 2006;78:1884–91.